Cytologic comparative analysis between stained and unstained smears of urine sediment in urinary tract pathologies
Dr. Ankita Varma, Dr. Vinay Bharat, Dr. Shweta Chawla Grover and Dr. Rani Bansal
Aim: To analyse the routine microscopic examination of urine specimens in urinary tract pathologies and compare the cytological examination of unstained and stained urine sediment samples (Papanicolaou and Romanowsky stains) to establish clinicocytological correlation.
Material and Method: The present study was conducted among 500 patients coming to either OPD /admitted to CSSH with urinary pathology. In patients with a clinical history suggestive of any urinary pathology freshly voided urine samples were collected. Samples were centrifuged at 1500rpm for 10 minutes. In case of less cellularity, Cytospin at 3000rpm for 5-10 minutes was done. From the sediment, three smears were prepared i.e. smear 1 (routine urine microscopy), smear 2 by Romanowsky stain (Leishman Geimsa) and smear 3 by Papanicolaou method.
Results: In the current study, urinary tract pathologies were found to be more common in females (326) as compared to males (174). Majority of patients were in the 3rd and 4th decade of life accounting for 184 cases (38%) and 153 cases (36%) respectively. Stained smears detect high n/c ratio, pus cells, bacilli/fungi and bare nuclei among 95.85%, 99.07%, 99.07% and 0%of UTI samples respectively, while unstained smears detect high n/c ratio, pus cells, bacilli/fungi and bare nuclei in 91.24%, 96.3%, 97.23% and 44.24% of the UTI samples respectively.
Conclusion: We can conclude that this study demonstrates the high correlation between the cytological examination of urine specimen in fresh smears and in the Papanicolaou-stained smears.