Upper gastrointestinal tract disorders are one of the most commonly encountered problems in clinical practice. A variety of disorders can affect the upper GIT. The definitive diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal disorders rests on the histopathological confirmation and is one of the bases for planning proper treatment.
Aims and objectives: To determine the spectrum of histopathological lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract and to establish endoscopic biopsies as an effective tool in the proper diagnosis and management of various upper gastrointestinal tract lesions.
Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on the upper GIT endoscopic biopsies and the histopathological assessment was done at the department of pathology, Subbaiah institute of medical sciences, Shimoga from July 2016 to July 2017.
Results: A total of 144 cases were taken and 163 endoscopic biopsies were studied. There were 88 male patient and 56 female patients. An age range of 9‐88years was observed. There were 30 (18.4%) cases from esophagus, 05(3.06%) cases from GE junction, 93(57.05%) cases from stomach, 1 case (0.61) from neo stomach (GJstoma) and 34(20.85%) cases from duodenum. 100(61.34%) cases were non-neoplastic, 33(20.24%) cases were benign neoplasms while 30(18.40%) were malignant neoplasms. Histopathology revealed gastritis 63cases (63%) as the most frequently diagnosed inflammatory lesion while squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus, 19 cases (63.33%) comprised the most frequently diagnosed malignant lesion.
Conclusion: In our study, the commonest site for upper GI endoscopic biopsy was from the stomach (57%) with 69.89% non neoplastic and 31.18% neoplastic lesions. Most common neoplasm of the stomach was adenocarcinoma. Endoscopy generates biopsy specimens from sites that were previously inaccessible without a major resection. So a thorough knowledge of the spectrum of lesions that can be diagnosed in these specimens is pertinent to make a proper diagnosis for better patient management.