Introduction: The kidneys, as essential organs with diverse functions, are of paramount importance in the human body. Their primary role involves eliminating metabolic waste products and maintaining the balance of water, salt, calcium, phosphorus, anions, and cations to uphold the plasma's acid-base equilibrium. The objective of the current study is to investigate and understand the various morphological patterns exhibited by renal diseases, as well as assess their distribution across different age groups and genders.
Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at Department of Pathology, Mamata Medical College, Khammam. A total of 32 nephrectomy specimens were studied.
Results: The study shows, male to female ratio is 2.5:1 with male preponderance and among 32 nephrectomy specimens 20 were non-neoplastic and 12 were neoplastic. Neoplastic lesions constitute about 20 cases with chronic pyelonephritis being the most common cause (8 cases) leading to nephrectomy. Hydronephrosis (5 cases) majority of them showed enlarged kidneys with depressed scars and loss of corticomedullary differentiation. In the age group between 5th to 6th decades maximum number of non-neoplastic lesions was seen and least is observed in between 1st to 2nd decade.
Conclusion: To conclude, these findings provide valuable insights into the histopathological patterns and distribution of kidney diseases in the studied population, contributing to our understanding of the prevalence and characteristics of these conditions.