International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology

International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology

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Vol. 5 Issue 4 Part B

2022, Vol. 5 Issue 4, Part BPages: 85-89

Study of carcinoembryonic antigen tumor marker in gastrointestinal pathology

Dr. Kruti P Ladani, Dr. Dhara P Trivedi and Dr. Amar R Chapla
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ABSTRACT
Background: Cancer mortality and morbidity has been increased in recent years, with gastrointestinal cancers comprising the majority of overall malignant conditions. All Indian cancer registries identify the digestive system as the most common cancer site in males. In women, breast cancer exhibits the highest occurrence, followed by cancers of the genital organs and the digestive system. Tumor markers are usually proteins or glycoproteins produced by the body in response to cancerous growth or by the cancer tissue that are possible to detect in serum, urine, or tissue samples. CEA assay is an inexpensive and easy to perform test; however, repeated measurements to monitor disease, follow up and the response to therapy contribute to higher costs and increase laboratory workload.
Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 100 patients. Type of sample includes blood sample in plain vacutte received in tumor marker section of the pathology department.
Objective:
 To make a comparative analysis of CEA in various gastrointestinal lesions.
 Pre and post operative study of Serum CEA in known case of gastrointestinal carcinoma.
 To study the factors affecting serum CEA concentrations.
Results: The present study was conducted from June 2018 to December2020 in the Department of Pathology, at tertiary care hospital, 100 cases were studied. Preoperative and postoperative mean CEA value, Mean CEA value in inflammatory, Benign and Malignant lesions as well as in well, moderately and poorly differentiated carcinoma were measured.
Conclusion: In general, this study showed that serum CEA levels are increased in people with habit of cigarette smoking and in benign and inflammatory lesions of GIT along with Malignant GI lesions. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) usually normalizes after surgery. After curative resection of primary CRC (colorectal carcinoma), a large number of patients' CEA levels declined to normal values within 4-6 weeks. Amongst many contradictory results, the measurement of CEA is a useful method for screening, diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of CRC but Physiological influences that need to be considered in interpreting the results include effects of aging and smoking. Serum CEA values fails to decline in patients with distant metastasis and advanced disease even after complete surgical removal of the tumour. Serum concentrations of CEA tend to be higher in patients with well-differentiated tumors compared with those with poorly differentiated tumors.


International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology
How to cite this article:
Dr. Kruti P Ladani, Dr. Dhara P Trivedi, Dr. Amar R Chapla. Study of carcinoembryonic antigen tumor marker in gastrointestinal pathology. Int J Clin Diagn Pathol 2022;5(4):85-89. DOI: 10.33545/pathol.2022.v5.i4b.496
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