Introduction: The Kidney is one of the most highly differentiated organs in the body affected by various disease processes, some resulting in permanent damage leading to surgical removal of kidney i.e., nephrectomy. Indications for nephrectomy are varied including irreversible damage by chronic infections, obstructive causes stricture and calculus diseases, vesicouretric reflex, congenital displasia, nephrosclerosis, cystic disease and also severe traumatic injury, non corrective renal artery disease leading to renovascular hypertension.
Simple nephrectomy is done to remove the irreversibly damaged, non-functioning kidneys involved by different benign pathologic condition while radical nephrectomy is indicated in malignant lesion.
Aim: To assess the patterns and morphology of lesions in nephrectomy specimens in a tertiary care hospital.
Material and Method
This retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology in B.J. Medical college and civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
A total of 63 nephrectomy specimens received during the period of 1 year and 5 months from January 2021 to may 2022 were included in the study. Paraffin blocks and slides along with case records were retrieved and studied.
Results: Patients with a male to female ratio of 1.25:1. Maximum cases of chronic pyelonephritis were seen in the age group of 20-40 years. Among 63 nephrectomy cases, 38 cases were non-neoplastic lesions and 25 of the cases were neoplastic lesions. Among 25 cases of renal cell carcinoma, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (13) cases were the most frequent followed by papillary RCC (4) cases.
Conclusion: Nephrectomy is an accepted surgical procedure for non-functioning kidneys due to various pathological disease processes. Most common affected age group was 20-40 years. Non neoplastic lesions were the most common cause for nephrectomies. Chronic pylonephritis with hydronephrotic changes being the most common cause. Clear Cell renal cell carcinoma being the common among malignant tumors. Other benign and malignant lesions being rare.