Myelodysplasia is a typical feature of Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), but not restricted to MDS, it may be found in non-clonal hematological as well as non-hematological diseases. The essential component of the WHO definition of MDS is the clonal nature of myelodysplastic hematopoiesis. MDS needs to be separated from the numerous neoplastic and non-clonal hematologic disorders mimicing MDS, because, while MDS is potentially preleukemic, disorders with secondary myelodysplasia are not neoplastic or preleukemic and are reversible when the underlying factor is removed.
Methods: We carried out an analysis of 6 cases presenting with marrow dysplasia between Feb2018 to Apr2019 and present their diagnostic approach with clinical history, complete blood count, biochemical tests, peripheral smear, bone marrow aspirate and biopsy, flowcytometry and cytogenetics.
Results: We hereby present a series of 6 cases of myelodysplasia. Two cases are primary MDS with clonality established. One case is associated with acute leukemia, and one therapy-related, and two cases secondary to an autoimmune disorder.
Conclusion: MDS is diagnosed by exclusion, because numerous signs of dysplasia might also occur in the context of other, including non-hematological diseases. It is therefore important to exclude other hematological and non-hematological diseases by a combination of clinical features, blood tests and molecular studies.