Background: The cytological examination of exfoliated cells in various effusion fluids is very challenging and is of paramount importance for early diagnosis and management of various pathological processes. It is of utmost significance in identification of malignant cells and hence throws light on the cause, staging and prognosis of various cancers.
Materials and Methods: Retrospective, analytical, observational study done over a period of one year from January 2020 to December 2020. A total of 228 cases including peritoneal and pleural and cerebrospinal fluid and urine were analyzed. Samples were centrifuged for five minutes at 2000 rpm and smears prepared from deposit were stained by Papanicolaou (PAP) and May-Grunwald- Giemsa (MGG) stains.
Results: Out of 221, 116 were peritoneal effusions, 87 were pleural, 15 cerebrospinal fluids and 3 urine. Out of 116 cases of peritoneal effusions, 60 were non neoplastic and 31 were malignant effusion. Out of total 87pleural effusions 51 were non neoplastic and 19 neoplastic. Commonest malignancy in peritoneal and pleural fluid was adenocarcinoma from ovary and lung respectively.
Conclusions: Cytological evaluation of different body fluids is a simple, rapid, inexpensive and less invasive tool with high accuracy and thereby reducing the need for invasive investigations. It is especially helpful in evaluating and staging malignancies thereby guiding the clinician in further management of the patient.