Astrocytoma is most common primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors that arise from the star-shaped cells (astrocytes) that form supportive tissue of the brain or from precursor cells. Astrocytoma is a subset of glial tumors. Glial tumors also known as gliomas referred to as the tumors that arise from supportive tissue of the brain which is formed by glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells). Astrocytoma represent more than half of all primary brain tumors.
Aim: The aim of the study is an overview of most recent advancement regarding classification on astrocytoma, to evaluate the frequency and age, sex, site wise distribution and clinical presentation of the various types of astrocytic tumors and comparing it with national and international study.
Materials and Methods: The present histopathological study was undertaken in the department of Pathology, Civil hospital, Ahmedabad (CHA) on surgical specimens received from Department of Surgery, Civil hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2018 to October 2020. The superficial biopsy, biopsy with artefacts and inadequate material/history were excluded from the study. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, subsequently dehydration, clearing, embedding in paraffin wax were carried out. Blocks were made, sections of 5 um thickness were cut and stained with Harris Haematoxylin and eosin stain.
Results: Out of 100 cases of astrocytic tumors, most common tumors were WHO Grade II Diffuse Astrocytoma (54%) followed by Grade I Pilocytic astrocytoma (22%), Grade III Anaplastic astrocytoma (14%) and Grade IV Glioblastoma (6%). Most of the astrocytic tumors occur between 21-30 years of age in present study. Higher rates of astrocytic tumors located in supratentorial part of brain in which most common site was frontal lobe (28%).
Conclusion: The present study gives histopathological aspects of astrocytic tumors. Combining histopathological and molecular features helps in the definitive diagnosis and management of astrocytic tumors thus providing better quality of life to the patient.