Numerous health effects of smoking are well-known; associations with semen quality are uncertain. Cigarette smoking may be associated with sub-fertility in males and may result in decreased sperm concentration, lower sperm motility, and a reduced percentage of morphologically normal sperm respectively Semen analysis is a simple, cost effective screening test for evaluation of male in laboratory & clinics, which provides information on quantitative and qualitative aspects of testicular function. Except in cases of azoospermia, semen analysis does not separate patients in to sterile and fertile group.
Objective: The present study was undertaken to perform the quantitative and qualitative Analysis of Semen and to compare the sperm parameters in smokers and non-smokers.
Materials and methods: The following males were excluded from the study groups:
1. Those suffering from azoospermia or secondary infertility;
2. Ex-smokers and ex-alcoholics, or those with history of tobacco/betel nut chewing or substance abuse;
3. Those with history of prolonged medication, intake of indigenous medications/herbal preparations/tonics, occupational exposure to chemicals; or excessive heat;
4. History of injury to testes, varicocele, hydrocele, undescended testis.
A total of 200 cases, retrospective and prospective from September 2018 to January 2021 were included in the study.
Results: Compared with non-smokers, smokers had a significant decrease in semen volumes, rapid progressive motility and sperm viability moreover, smokers had a significant increase in the levels of immotile sperms and semen leukocytes, pH and sperm concentration were not significant. Sperm motion parameters were all lower in the smokers. Normal morphology sperm was decreased significantly in smokers. The sperm morphology was worse with increasing degree of smoking. Compared, the overall quality of sperm was significantly decreased in smokers when compared with non-smokers.
Conclusion: Semen parameters like, volume, motility, count, liquifraction time, viscocity morphologically normal spermatozoa were reduced in cigarette smokers when compared to Non-smokers, but sperm count was found to have a decrease in Smokers, when compared to Non-smokers. Liquifraction time and viscocity of semen was variable .In concordance with other researchers, results of present study support that cigarette smoking have a relatively significant effect on semen.