Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is an emerging public health problem worldwide. The increasing cost of healthcare, particularly in developing nations like India, is a social and economic burden. Slow but progressive deterioration in kidney function leads to numerous hematological and biochemical changes. The aim of the present study is to study various changes in red cell parameters that occur in the CKD patients.
Materials and Method: 50 patients with CKD were included in this study. Age, gender, RBC count; hemoglobin (Hb); hematocrit; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); MCH concentration (MCHC); and peripheral smears were studied. Results were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 version.
Results: Of the 50 CKD patients on maintenance HD, the most common group sampled were male patients (72%) with the mean age of 54 (±15) years. The study revealed that Hemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cells (RBC) were low in CKD patients. The most common type of anemia was normocytic normochromic anemia, followed by dimorphic anemia. Fragmented RBCs and Spherocytes were 42% and 32% respectively.
Conclusion: CKD is associated with different degrees of abnormality in hematological parameters that needs careful evaluation and management. From the CBC and peripheral smear findings the type of anemia, the degree of hemolysis can be analysed and the patients can be evaluated for the underlying cause and treated appropriately. The present study might help clinicians understand haematological profile and take necessary steps in the management.