: Pancytopenia is a consequence of varied aetiology in paediatric age group. The aetiology can be determined by bone marrow assessment and clinical profile of patient.
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess clinical profile, bone marrow morphology and to identify easily treatable and reversible causes of paediatric pancytopenia cases. Setting: Tertiary care centre in Rajasthan
Study design: Prospective
Methods and material: The study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan from January 2019 to December 2019. Patients aged 2 months to 15 years who had pancytopenia on peripheral blood smear and were admitted for bone marrow examination were included in the study. Detailed history and clinical profile were taken in all cases.
Results: Out of 54 patients presenting with pancytopenia, the most common presenting complaint was generalized weakness (92.6%) followed by fever (77.78%). The most common physical finding was pallor (100%), followed by splenomegaly (42.60%) and hepatomegaly (40.74%). Megaloblastic Anaemia was the most common aetiology (48.15%) followed by Aplastic Anaemia (16.67%) and Acute Leukaemia (11.11%).
Conclusion: As megaloblastic anaemia is the most common cause of pancytopenia and being an easily treatable condition, it should be taken into consideration before the more serious conditions like leukaemia and aplastic anaemia.