Cell block is a useful method to evaluate pleural effusion by enabling observation of tissue morphology and also additional sections that are useful for special stains and immunochemistry. Because of its safe and easy collection, pleural fluid cell block is considered an alternative to pleural tissue, especially if the patient not eligible for surgery or biopsy. The cell block technique now takes an intermediate position between histological and cytological examination. So the aim of this study is to know the effectiveness of cell block technique over the conventional smears in pleural fluid analysis.
Methodology: It is a prospective study conducted for a period of 5 months from 1st August 2019 to 31st December 2019 in the Department of Pathology, RVM Institute of medical sciences and Research Centre. During this period, total 50 cases of pleural effusion which were admitted in medical ward of RVMIMS&RC hospital. Pleural fluid samples obtained from aspiration of all the admitted pleural effusion cases are analyzed during the above period.
Results: Out of the total 50 cases included in this study, males were 35 and female were 15 contributing 60% and 40% respectively. Males are more than females. Age range of the study participants was from 20-70 years, with the dominant age group being 31-40 years. In the present study, 16% were diagnosed as malignancy on cell block and only 10% were diagnosed as positive for malignancy on cytosmears.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the pleural fluid cytology cell block techniques are the most useful tests in establishing the diagnosis of pleural effusion. Cytological examination of body fluids is a complete diagnostic modality which aims at pointing out the etiology and prognosis of effusion. But, with the help of cell block technique and it helps in reaching at a near accurate diagnosis.