Introduction: Hemolytic anaemia is caused by destruction of red cell membrane which may be caused by many underlying pathologies. It may be caused by membrane defects, enzyme defects, hemoglobinopathies, immune destruction and non immune destruction. Specific laboratory tests can readily confirm the diagnosis of hemolytic anaemia.
Aims and Objectives: To study the clinicopathological profile of hemolytic anaemia among patients in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 cases were collected over a period stretching from 01.11.2018 to 31.07.2019 at B.J.M.C. and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad. All the newly diagnosed cases and old cases on follow up were included in the study.
Results: In the study, beta thalassemia trait 38% was found to be the most common, followed by sickle cell anaemia 20%, malaria 14%, beta thalassemia major 13%, beta thalassemia intermedia 4%, sickle beta thalassemia 3%, sickle cell trait, autoimmune hemolytic anaemia and G6PD deficiency with 2% each. 1case each of hereditary spherocytosis and HbD Punjab were observed. Male preponderance was noted in the study. Predominant peripheral smears finding were microcytic hypochromic red blood cells with various degree of poikilocytosis and anisocytosis. Other investigations like X ray, USG, CT scan, biochemical markers, diagnostic tests like sickling test, osmotic fragility test, G6PD screening, HbS, HbF values, etc. were also taken into consideration. Jaundice, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, gall stones were the most common clinical picture seen in the study.
Conclusion: Clinicohematological study in hemolytic anaemia can be concluded by findings on peripheral smear with backing done by hemoglobin electrophoresis. Hemoglobin electrophoresis remains the investigation of choice in hemolytic anaemia. Hemoglobinopathies lead to serious health problems leading to severe morbidity and mortality in Indian population. It is important to emphasize the importance of diagnosing hemolytic anaemia to give definite plan of action regarding the diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies which can be formulated to minimize serious complications.