Bone lesions are relatively uncommon in comparison to other lesions. For the correct diagnosis of bone lesions, charting out treatment plan and estimating prognosis, interpretation of biopsy material proves to be absolutely necessary. This present histopathological study helps us to understand the variety of bone lesions and gives an idea of their relative frequencies, age, sex distributions and site of occurrence.
Materials and Methods: This study consists of 83 cases collected over a period of 2 years from October 2017 to October 2019 from patients admitted at Dr. D. Y Patil Hospital, Kolhapur a tertiary care centre with radiologically apparent bone lesions. Hematoxylin and Eosin sections were examined. Detailed microscopic study was done and findings and diagnosis were noted and compared to other studies.
Results: Out of the 83 cases studied over the period of 2 years, 41 lesions were non-neoplastic (49.4%), and 42 lesions were neoplastic (50.6%), out of which 33 cases are benign (39.7%) and 9 cases are malignant (10.8%). Males were affected more commonly than females, with a male: female ratio of 1.37:1. Bone lesions were more common in between the age group of 25 to 50 years. Amongst non-neoplastic lesions, Chronic osteomyelitis were the most common (21 cases, 51.3%), followed by avascular necrosis (10 cases, 24.4%).Amongst the benign neoplastic lesions, Giant cell tumor (Osteoclastoma) was the most common (10 cases, 30.3%), Osteochondroma (Exostosis) was the second most common (8 cases, 24.3%).The most common malignant lesion was Chondrosarcoma (3 cases, 33.33%), followed by metastasis to bone (3 cases, 33.33%). Most of the lesions were found in the femur (24 cases, 28.9%).
Conclusion: Histopathological study of bone lesions includes variety of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Although benign and malignant lesions of bone are distinct and well studied, there are some benign lesions that often mimic cancer-causing diagnostic dilemma. Therefore, if diagnosed with clinical, radiological and histopathology, proper diagnosis and treatment can be made.