Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the western world and second most in India after carcinoma cervix. The most common presentation of breast disease is a palpable mass with or without inflammatory lesion, nipple discharge and imaging abnormalities. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a popular diagnostic technique as it is highly sensitive, specific, rapid, easy to perform, cost effective and can be carried out at OPD level.in the first visit without the need of anaesthesia. This technique is commonly used in combination with physical examination and mammography, so called triple-test diagnostic triad. Triple assessment of breast mass had decreased the false negative rate to less than 1%.
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out the common causes of breast lump, to find out sensitivity and specificity of FNAC of breast lump and also to calculate statistical data like sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency of FNAC procedure.
Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 180 cases and carried out at histopathology section of pathology department of GMERS Medical College, Valsad, a tertiary care centre in Valsad district of Gujarat state, India. The clinical case history and radiological details of the patient was recorded which includes detail history of pain, nipple discharge, ulceration of nipple and duration of lesion.
Results: Out of total 180 cases, 126 (70.0%) were benign and 54 (30.0%) were malignant. Out of total 180 cases, 95 (52.8%) were located in right sided breast, 82 (45.5%) were located in left sided breast and 03 (2.4%) were located bilaterally. Out of 121 histologically diagnosed benign cases, 101 (83.5%) were fibroadenoma. Out of total 59 histologically diagnosed malignant cases, 43 (72.9%) were intraductal carcinoma. On FNAC of breast lumps, 70% (n=126) were categorized as benign, 30% (n=54) as malignant. Subsequent histopathology of breast lumps revealed 67.2% (n=121) benign lesions and 32.8% (n=59) malignant lesions.
Conclusion: The FNAC is an essential and important test in diagnosing breast lump. It is patient-friendly, easy to perform, more reliable, repeatable, cost effective and a simple and safe test to diagnose patient presenting with lump breast. FNAC can suggest further investigation without delay if carcinoma could be diagnosed. It also help the clinicians for early diagnosis and specific management thus reducing morbidity and mortality.