Thyroid neoplasms represent the most common neoplasms of endocrine system and pose significant challenge to pathologists, surgeons and oncologists.
Conventional methods of evaluation of thyroid diseases include clinical history, physical examination, thyroid function tests, thyroid imaging and ultrasonography. Histopathological analysis of surgically resected specimens provides the most definitive diagnosis.
Aims and Objectives: To study the spectrum of neoplastic lesions of thyroid with the use of immunohistochemistry.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on thyroid neoplasms was conducted in the Department of Pathology Guntur Medical College, Guntur over a period of two years from June 2011 to May 2013. The data necessary for study has been received from the histopathology records at the department. The type of specimens included total thyroidectomy specimens, hemithyroidectomy specimens and trucut biopsies. The applied nomenclature is adopted by the 2007 WHO classification.
Results: The incidence of spectrum of thyroid neoplasms was studied. Study was conducted in the Department of pathology, Guntur Medical College. The conventional criteria on the basis of histopathology was applied to all neoplasms. Immunohistochemistry was used in cases where definite diagnosis could not be established. Ck 19 was used in all cases of FVPTC. Follicular adenoma is most common benign neoplasm and papillary carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion.
Conclusion: Malignant thyroid tumours predominated in the present study in contrast to many other studies because the study is conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is most common malignant neoplasm. Almost all variants of papillary carcinoma have been reported of which the most common were classical variant followed by follicular variant. Immunohistochemistry has a definite role in thyroid neoplasms and is helpful in establishing diagnosis in cases medullary carcinoma and non hodgkins lymphoma where histopathology was not very conclusive.CK 19 postivity in FVPTC in the present study is 40% indicating that more careful histopathological evaluation for nuclear features is needed along with IHC correlation.