Cataract is the most common cause of blindness which is treatable. Though there are multiple risk factors involved, exact pathogenesis of cataract is yet to be established. Diabetics are known to be associated with electrolyte disturbances, like hypo/hypernatremia, hyperkalemia. We hypothesize that serum electrolytes and oxidative marker enzyme super oxide dismutase (SOD) levels may be altered in diabetic cataract patients. The aim of the study was to compare serum electrolytes (Na), blood glucose and SOD in healthy controls and diabetic cataract patients as well as to assess the correlation of duration of diabetes with electrolytes as well as risk of cataractogenesis in diabetics.
Methods: SOD was measured as indicator of oxidative stress and serum sodium levels estimated in diabetic cataract patients and healthy controls.
Results: The present study involved 60 subjects, out of which 20 were Diabetic cataract cases who attended outpatient and inpatient department of Tertiary care Eye Hospital and outpatient department of RIMS & General Hospital, KADAPA, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and other 40 were controls without diabetes and cataract. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Blood Glucose levels, Plasma SOD levels, Serum Na+ levels in control and diabetic cataract patients. In the present study, Comparison of plasma SOD and blood Glucose levels between cases and controls. All the controls were having normal blood Glucose levels (non-diabetics) and normal SOD levels except for 7 controls with decreased SOD levels (12%). Among cases all are diabetic and majority 20 (50%) were with decreased SOD levels. In the present study, Mean ± SD for plasma Glucose levels for diabetic cataract cases is 217.62±55.85 and for controls is 105.86±61.75. Mean ± SD of Blood Glucose is higher in cases than in controls and the mean difference is statistically significant (p<0.01**). In the present study, the mean of serum Na+ in diabetic cataract cases is (147.5±6.6) and for control group is (143.4±6.0), which shows significant difference (p<0.05*). Though the mean of serum Na+ of the patients were slightly higher than normal range (135-145 mEq/l) but in comparison with control group, the serum Na+ of the patients was elevated, which notifies significant difference.
Conclusions: The present study concluded that, we observed there were significant differences in SOD levels and Na levels compared both in Diabetic cataract patients and healthy controls. The results clearly indicate that significant decrees in antioxidant enzyme in cataract patients and sodium levels increased in cases. These observational studies clearly indicate that Diabetes associated oxidative stress and electrolyte imbalance important for formation of early cataract.