Background and Objectives:
Pancytopenia is a relatively common haematological entity and causes range from simple drug induced bone marrow suppression, megaloblastic haemopoiesis to fatal overwhelming infections and leukaemia. Identification of the correct cause will help in institution of appropriate therapy and prognostication. And to note the spectrum of clinical presentation due to various causes. To identify and document laboratory features in various causes of pancytopenia to analyse the clinico-pathological profile of patients with pancytopenia.
Methods: Total 70 patients aged above 18 years whose haemogram showed pancytopenia were studied.
Exclusion criteria: Patients on chemotherapy, radiation therapy for various malignancies and in whom bone marrow aspiration/ biopsy was not done were excluded.
Results: 46 were males and 24 were females. Youngest patient being 18 years old and the eldest was 73 years old. The common causes for pancytopenia were megaloblastic anaemia 24.8%, aplastic anaemia 17.142%, leukaemia (14.28%) and hypersplenism 11.42%). No definite cause could be identified in 1 case. The common haematological abnormality observed were a macrocytic, hypochromic anaemia with hypersegmented neutrophils on peripheral blood smear and bone marrow showed hypercellularity with megaloblastic erythropoiesis. Bone marrow aspiration was conclusive in most of the cases but in 8.33% bone marrow biopsy was necessary to establish a diagnosis.
Interpretation and conclusion: Common causes of pancytopenia were megaloblastic anaemia, aplastic anaemia, leukaemia and hypersplenism. Severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestation was more commonly associated with aplastic anaemia and leukaemia. Bone marrow biopsy was needed in 8.33% of the cases to establish a diagnosis.