Upper Gastrointestinal tract disorders are the most commonly encountered problems in clinical practice with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Carcinoma esophagus is a fatal tumour with poor prognosis. Good prognosis depends largely on early detection of thetumour. Endoscopic biopsy plays an important role in their early diagnosis and management.
1.To study the spectrum of histopathological lesions of oesophagus
2.To study the correlation between malignant lesions of oesophagus with age, sex and clinical presentation.
Methodology: A prospective study on endoscopic biopsies of Esophagus was conducted from August 2013 to July 2015.
Results: Our study included 55 endoscopic biopsies of esophagus. Commonest age group of presentation was 61-70 years with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Dysphagia was the most common clinical complaint (70.9%), middle1/3rd was the commonest site of presentation (67.3%). Of the 55 cases non neoplastic lesions were (5.4%), neoplastic lesions were (87.3%) with squamous cell carcinoma being the commonest lesion (74.5%) followed by adenocarcinoma (7.3%). Among squamous cell carcinomas well differentiated were (19.5%), moderately differentiated were (65.9%) and poorly differentiated were (14.6%). Among adenocarcinomas moderately differentiated were (75%) and poorly differentiated were (25%).
Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest condition in our study. Lesions were common in 6th and 7th decade with dysphagia being the most common complaint. Hence dysphagia in older patients should be investigated and confirmed with endoscopic biopsy to rule out carcinoma esophagus in highly suspicious cases.